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Vol. XV. — JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1902. — No. LVIII. 


This is a legend of the Mohammedan tribes or Moros (Moro is 
the Spanish for Mohammedan or Mussulman) of Mindanao, P. I., 
in the valley of the Rio Grande de Mindanao. It deals with the 
adventures of Bantugan and of his friend Datto Baningan. 

Bantugan is the national hero, and every child is taught the story 
of Bantugan until he almost knows it by heart. This is the first 
translation out of the original tongue. Given by word of mouth and 
translated in 1900 at Cotta Bato, Mindanao, by Major Ralph S. 
Porter, Surgeon U. S. V. Bantugan and his relatives were : 

Palamata Bantugan, son of Tinumanan sa Lugun Minulucsa Da- 
lendeg (brother of the earthquake and thunder). 

The brothers of Bantugan were : 1, Mapalala Macog ; 2, Madali 
Macabancas ; 3, Dalumimbang Dalanda ; 4, Damadag la Lupa ; 5, 
Maladia Langig ; 6, Marandang Datto Sulug ; 7, Malinday Asaba- 
rat ; 8, Mudsay sa Subu Subu ; 9, Pasandalan na Murud ; 10, Bendera 
Mudaya ; n, Pamanay Macalayan ; 12, Pandi Macalele. 

The sisters of Bantugan were : 1, Alcat Ulauanan ; 2, Mandanda 
Uray ; 3, Dalinding u Subangan. 

The sons of Bantugan were: 1, Balatama Lumana; Pandumagan 
Dayuran ; 2, Alungan Pidsiana Lumalang sa Dalisay ; 3, Malinday 
Abunbara Lumanti Dowa Dowa ; 4, Tankula Bulantakan Bulu Bulu 
sa Lagat ; 5, Tagatag sa Layagum sa Pigculat ; 6, Lumbay sa Peg- 
caualau Daliday Malindu ; 7, Lumbay Magapindu. 

Once upon" a time there came a terrific hurricane which carried 
the house of the sister of Bantugan from the village of Bombalan to 
the seacoast. 

While there it was seen by a Spanish general who was lying off 
the coast in his warship. The Spanish general's name was Minda- 
lunu sa Tunu-Miducau sa da Uata. 

The general put the house with the sister of Bantugan on his war- 
ship and carried her away to his town of Sugurungan a Lagat 

144 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The king of this town was Dumakulay Amalana Dumombang 

For capturing this maiden the general was given high rank and 
honor and was ordered to build a house for the sister close to the 
house of the king. 

Now when the king asked Alcat (which was the name of Bantu- 
gan's sister) to give him some mbama to chew, she refused, saying, 
" Do not talk to me, for I have been taken from my brothers and am 
heavy at heart ; if you wish to marry me, go to my brothers and ask 
them for me." x 

When the brothers of Alcat knew that she had been stolen away 
from them, they were heavy at heart also. Then said Bantugan, 
" Prepare all of our warboats and launch my great warship Linu- 
muntan Mapalo Mabuculud Linayum. Put out all our battle-flags 
and let all my brothers gather with me to search for our sister." 

When they were all aboard the captain of Bantugan's warboat 
called out to it, " Sail like the wind, Linumuntan, so that we may 
overtake the wicked Spanish general who has carried away the sister 
of our datto " (chief). 

But the ship did not obey his command, and Malinday Asabarat, 
the seventh brother of Bantugan, said, " It must be that we have a 
bad soldier on board ; let us find out who he is and kill him, that we 
may proceed on our journey." Then Malinday pointed out a soldier 
whose name was Masualo Savani Masunu Sakasumba, whose great 
fault was that he made love to the wives of the dattos and other 
married women. 

When this man knew he was to die, he said, " Tell my friends when 
you return that I died in battle and not that I was executed." 

Then Malinday took him to the bow of the ship and with one stroke 
of his campilan (Moro broadsword) cut off his head. When the sol- 
dier was dead the ship at once began to speed through the water with 
tremendous velocity, so that all the great fish of the sea were much 

Before long they came to a small island and there anchored, and 
four men carried the body of the soldier ashore and buried it. 

Mapalala Macog now suggested that they rest here a while and 
sleep. While they were sleeping there came to anchor on the other 
side of the island a warship of Datto Baningan, who was the ac- 
cepted lover of Bantugan's sister, Alcat Ulauanan, who had been car- 

1 Mbama — A package of bongo nut, bulla (pronounced booya) leaf, lime, and 
tobacco, considered a delicious combination for a chew by the Moros. If a 
Moro woman hands a roll of this to a man, it signifies that she is willing to receive 
his addresses. 

The Story of Banlugan. 145 

ried away by the Spaniard, and whom Bantugan had started to search 

Baningan had ordered the colintangan (large Moro xylophone) to 
be played in his warship, which was called the Katipapabayan Lum- 
bayan Dakadua, meaning the two-tailed crocodile of the sea. 

Now Bendera Mudaya, the tenth brother of Bantugan, heard the 
loud playing of Baningan's colintangan and he became very wroth, 
for he thought it would disturb his brother Bantugan's rest, so he 
called a thousand soldiers and had the lantakas (cannon) fired at the 
ship of Baningan, and the shot carried away all the principal masts 
of Baningan's ship and killed many of his soldiers. 

Now Baningan's brother, whose name was Mapandala sa Dalen 
Matankin sa Gavi (he that bites like the pepper of the deep forest), 
called the master of the ship, whose name was Salindala Kabunga 
Salgangka sa Bukau, and ordered him to return the fire ; but said the 
master, " Let us first ask permission of Datto Baningan," who just 
now awakened and inquired what had happened. Mapandala replied 
that Bantugan's ship had fired on them and begged to be allowed to 
fire back " No," said Baningan, " if we fire on Bantugan I can then 
never marry his sister." " But," said the brother, " look at the ruin 
of the ship and the loss of men. Let this woman go and let us revenge 
ourselves." " No," said Baningan ; " seeing that you my brother still 
live not even the loss of ships or men will compel me to attack the 
great and honorable Bantugan." 

So Baningan gave orders for his anchors to be raised and his ship 
to be sailed straight for Bantugan's ship, that they might converse. 
Baningan sat in the bow (ulunan) with two gold-embroidered um- 
brellas held over him. 

Now when Bendera Mudaya recognized that it was Baningan he 
had fired at, he broke into tears and cried out, " Ama ku " (my father), 
" do not scold me. I thought your ship was the ship of our enemies. 
It is all my fault ; do with me as you will." " No," said Baningan ; 
"we are equally sad, let us say no more of it. I but beg of Bantugan 
to allow me to lash my ship to his." This was soon done and the 
dattos greeted each other. 

Then Baningan asked, "What brings you out in your warship with 
so many soldiers and lantakas?" When Baningan had been told 
that his sweetheart had been carried away by the Spaniards his 
grief was very great, and with a common enemy these two dattos 
sealed their friendship. 

After a council it was decided that Bantugan should continue the 
search by sea and that Baningan should go by land, as his ship was 
no longer seaworthy. 

After the council Baningan returned to his own ship and cast 

146 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

loose from Bantugan, who sailed away. All the panditas (priests) 
were now called together by Baningan and were asked for their advice 
as to how to proceed to find the lost maiden. They told him, when 
he started out, not to go as a datto with fine raiment and many fol- 
lowers, but to go alone in the disguise of a tiruray, 1 and that if he 
went this way he would surely meet with success. 

So Baningan sent his brother Mapandala back with the ship to 
their village of Cudarangen, there to be ruler in his stead. But the 
brother's heart was heavy, for he wanted to go also on the trip, and 
he begged unavailingly of Baningan to let him go, but he would not 
consent. So Baningan went ashore and Mapandala put his ship about 
to return home, but when Baningan was well out of sight Mapandala 
turned again and started to follow Bantugan as best he could, mak- 
ing many repairs to his ship. 

In a day or two he passed by a large town called Pamamaluy a ig 
Alamay a Lagat, and there encountered a great Spanish warship 
whose captain inquired where he was from. Mapandala answered, 
" From Cudarangen." Then the Spaniard asked him where he was 
going. Mapandala answered, " To search for the sister of Datto Ban- 
tugan." Whereupon the Spanish fired upon him ; the general on 
the ship was the same one who had carried away Bantugan's sister, 
and he ordered Mapandala to return to Cudarangen, saying that not 
far away there was a fleet of a thousand Spanish ships waiting for 
Bantugan and his followers. " Nevertheless," said Mapandala, " I 
shall not return." And the battle began at once, between Mapan- 
dala and the Spaniard. The latter soon won, and Mapandala was 
badly injured so that his entrails fell out. Both boats were badly 
injured and many were killed on both sides, but the Spaniards were 
able to float and navigate, and they looted Mapandala's boat and 
then returned to their village. 

Mapandala's boat was finally cast upon the beach, where it was 
seen by Baningan who came by there on foot at that very moment. 
He at once boarded her, and when Mapandala saw some one coming 
he cried out for water which Baningan brought him. When they 
recognized each other Baningan embraced his brother and wept to 
see him so sorely wounded. Mapandala said, "I am surely dying." 
But Banignan called for a fairy from Cudarangen to take his brother 
back and cure him there of his wounds with a great medicine which 
he had at home in his chest. When the fairy had taken Mapandala, 
Baningan went on his way. 

1 A tiruray is one of a tribe that lives up in the mountains, sometimes in trees, 
and in the most primitive way. They are gradually becoming extinct, dying of 
starvation, from lack of energy enough to till the most fertile of soils. 

The Story of Bantugan. 147 

The warship of Bantugan finally reached the village of the Span- 
iards, Sudurungan a Lagat, and there found a thousand Spanish war- 
ships, who at once fired upon them, but the only effect of their firing 
was to push Bantugan farther away, not a single cannon-ball pene- 
trating his ship. 

Baningan continued on his road, and after many days reached a 
high hill from which he could see the great city of the Spaniards, 
with many ships in the harbor and many more on guard at its en- 
trance. This great display frightened Baningan very much, for he 
thought to himself, " At the very door of the city I will die." So 
he decided to go back to the brother of Bantugan, who was named 
Pasandalan na Murud, and who was the sultan of I Labumbalan 
Tankulabulantakan, and ask him what he should do in the face of 
such dreadful obstacles. 

He had not gone far until two little golden birds alighted on his 
shield (klung) and told him not to go back, for he would be laughed 
at, and all would say that he was not worthy of his sweetheart. 
Baningan then smote his breast and decided to return to the search 
even though he died ten times. He then hid his shield and cam- 
pilan (broadsword) in a hollow rock and carried only a bow and 

As he was passing along the coast he saw the ships of the Spanish 
general sailing by who had destroyed his own boat. The Spanish 
general also saw him and called to him to come on board his ship, 
for he did not think that he had the walk — or carriage of a poor 
tiruray. So Baningan went aboard the Spanish ships, and the 
soldiers were so thick on the deck that he could not help stepping 
on them as he passed. This made the soldiers mad, but the general 
said, " Never mind ; he is only a poor tiruray, and does not know good 
manners." The tiruray walked right up and sat down close by the 
side of the general, which made the general mad on the inside, but 
he did not show it. Then the general asked him, " Where are you 
from ? " He answered, " From Lalansayan Lalanun." Now the 
general knew that the king's brother lived with this family and so 
the tirurary, who was Baningan in disguise, said that he had been 
sent by the king's brother to inquire if it was true that the king had 
captured the sister of Bantugan, and for the king to beware, for Ban- 
tugan was a powerful and dangerous enemy. Then the general told 
a great lie, saying that they had had a big war with Bantugan and 
that Alcat had been given as a peace offering. 

This great lie maddened the tiruray, so that for a minute he 
wanted to go "idzavil" (run amuck or juramentado). 1 The general 

1 Juramentado — A Moro who makes a vow before the priest to die taking the 

148 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

noticed that the tiruray was getting mad, and asked, " Why are you 
red in the face ? I believe that you are Baningan, and if you are 
you will go no farther." But the tiruray answered and said, 
" Show me Baningan, and I myself will slay him." Then the gen- 
eral said, " Tell me truly from where you come ? " The tiruray 
answered and said, " From Lansayan Aluna Lundingan Apamalui 
Deliday Linauig Lumbay Lungan a Lagat, whose datto is Daliday 
Linauig Lumbay Alungan a Lagat, who is a brother to your king." 

Then the general and the tiruray shook hands, and the general 
asked, " What is your errand here ? " The tiruray answered, " I 
come by order of the brother of the king to see if it was true that 
the king had the sister of Datto Bantugan in his city and if she was 
beautiful or not." The general said, "She is as beautiful as the 

The tiruray now asked the general to take him to see the sister 
of Bantugan, for he alone would not be allowed to pass the gates. 
So the general and Baningan went ashore and walked towards the 
city of the king, and when they reached the gates the guard would 
only allow the general to pass and would not admit the tiruray. 

But the general said, " This tiruray is a good man and comes from 
the town of the king's brother." Then the captain of the guard 
said, " No, he cannot pass, for I know that in the city of the king's 
brother there are no tirurays." " Yes," said Baningan, " that is true, 
but I do not claim to live in the town of the king's brother, but 
in a village near it named Malasan sa Ulay Uluban sa Bulauan." 
" Well," said the captain of the guard, " you may go in ; you look 
innocent at any rate." So in they went, and soon they came to the 
second guard, whose captain asked the general, "What is your 
business with the king ? " The general said, " To beg permission of 
the king to return to my family." " Who is the tiruray with you," 
asked the captain of the guard. 

" Oh, he is all right, I will vouch for him," said the general. 

Then the captain of the guard said, " Well, you may both pass, but 
the law is that all who pass this gate must pass through dancing." 
So they both danced their way through the gate. 

By and by they reached the house of the king, where there were 
many guards, who did not care to have the tiruray pass, but the 
king, when he heard that there was a tiruray below, ordered the 
guard to admit him and bring the man up to him, and when the 
tiruray had entered the palace he found the floor covered with 
soldiers sitting and lying down. He clumsily stepped on several, 

blood of a Christian, and believes that in so doing he will go at once to heaven. 
So he starts out with his sword and attacks every Christian he can find until he is 
himself killed. 

The Story of Bantugan. 149 

who immediately wanted to kill him, but the king said, " No, he is 
only a tiruray and knows no manners ; do not hurt him." Then the 
tiruray walked straight up to the throne and sat right down beside 
the king, to the great fear of the general, who told him not to, for 
the king would surely scold him or kill him. When the courtiers 
saw this poor beggar take his seat by the king's side, they begged 
permission to kill him for his presumption. But the king said, " No, 
I will question him first." 

While Baningan was seated beside the king he saw the armor of 
his brother lying on the floor and covered with blood. His face 
became red and the tears fell from his eyes, and he again wanted to 
be an " idzavil," but on second thought decided not to, for if he did 
he could not succeed in seeing his sweetheart. 

The king asked him why his face was so red and why he was 
crying. Baningan answered, " I cry, for I cannot see the sister of 
Bantugan." Then asks the king, " What do you know of the sister 
of Bantugan, and where do you come from ? " Baningan answered, 
" From your brother's town." Then the king at once asked him, 
" Is my brother well and happy ? " " Yes," said the tiruray, who 
then asked, " Is the sister of Bantugan as beautiful as she is reported 
to be ? " " Yes," said the king, " she is as beautiful as the moon." 
Then Baningan asked the king's permission to see her so that he 
could tell the king's brother of her beauty. So the king told the 
tiruray to go and ask Alcat for bulla for the king to chew, and to 
tell her that if she would not give it he would have her head cut off. 

When the tiruray reached the house in which the sister of Bantu- 
gan was kept, a wife of the king (whose name was Salagambal Kla 
Undiganan) came forward and asked him what he wanted. When he 
told her, she asked him to come in and sit down, but Baningan said, 
" I wait for the order of the sister of Bantugan." But the sister of 
Bantugan did not care to order the tiruray to come in, for he was of 
low blood. But on the solicitation of the other wives of the king, 
she told him to come in and sit down. 

When the tiruray came in the house he sat down close to Alcat, 
who scolded him for it, and ordered him away, but the wives of the 
king said, " No, he is only a poor tiruray and knows no better ; let 
him stay and we will have some sport with him." 

Then Bantugan's sister asked him from whence he came. He 
answered, " From Mapulud Salin Kikan Palau sa Linun Kayo." 
Then Alcat at once asked him if he knew Datto Bantugan. The 
tiruray answered and said, " Yes, I know him, but I have heard that 
he was killed not long ago in a fight with the Spaniards. Also his 
brother Mapalala Macog, who was killed by a crocodile, and all the 
other brothers are dead in the warship of Dalumimbang Dalanda." 

150 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

When hearing this the sister of Bantugan fell in a faint (the name 
of the warship was Timbalangay a Uatu Timbidayala Sunga). 

When Alcat had recovered from her faint, she asked the tiruray 
if he knew Baningan. At this the tiruray laughed and showed his 
teeth, which the sister of Bantugan recognized at once, but she gave 
no sign of recognition. Then the tiruray said, " Baningan fell in a 
cave a week ago and has not come out yet." Then he took a " ma- 
lung " (a Moro dress) and put it on in Moro style and seized the sis- 
ter of Bantugan and put her on his lap. She did not scold him, but 
asked, " Can you win in a fight with the Spaniards and take me 
home to my family ? " Baningan answered and said, " Win or lose, 
I will not leave you. The king has sent me to bring him bulla from 
you and if you don't give it he will kill you." 

"Well," said Bantugan's sister, ''let him kill me; I will not give 
him the bulla." Baningan now called the fairies to bring his campi- 
lan and rodella and prepared himself for a fight. Alcat cried and said, 
" If you leave me now even for a minute, you will never come back." 
"Yes," said Baningan, "I will come back." He then rhade himself 
invisible by a spell and went out to the harbor mouth where he could 
get a stone to sharpen his campilan. 

While all this was going on, the king became very impatient at 
the non-return of the tiruray and sent for him. The women told 
the messenger that the tiruray had gone some time before, and when 
the king heard this he said, "The tiruray does not return, for he is 
ashamed to return without the bulla which Bantugan's sister has 

The king then ordered a well dug and had the sister of Bantugan 
brought to it, that she might be drowned in it. But the courtiers 
begged that she be spared, for, they said, " if you kill the sister of Ban- 
tugan, we will surely have a war with Bantugan and his brothers, and 
they are very brave men and have many followers." But the king 
became more and more angry and took his sabre to kill the sister of 
Bantugan. At that moment Baningan returned in his invisible state 
and stood by her side. Alcat now said to Baningan, " What are you 
going to do now ? " He answered, " I will take you up to the top 
of the highest cocoanut-tree," which he did, and when he returned, 
became visible to all the court clad in armor and with his campilan 
and klung. He was at once surrounded by the general and the sol- 
diers of the court, who attacked him, but Baningan defended him- 
self so well that every stroke of his campilan cut off ten heads. 

In the mean time, Bantugan arrived at the harbor mouth and 
heard a great commotion in the city, which was caused by the fight 
that was going on between Baningan and the king's soldiers. On 

The Story of Bantugan. 151 

learning this Bantugan ordered his ship to pass under the water 
instead of on top, until he reached the point not far from the Span- 
ish fleet. His ship then ascended to the surface, causing great com- 
motion and excitement among the Spaniards. Madali Macabancas 
now suggested that the ship be anchored bow and stern. This was 
scarcely done before the Spaniards opened fire on them, and for 
seven days the fire continued, so that the smoke was so thick that 
it made the day the same as night. 

At the end of the seventh day the smoke rose a little and the 
Spaniards saw that Bantugan's boat was still uninjured, while they 
were badly cut up. Their bullets had simply pushed Bantugan's 
ship farther away. 

Marandang Datto Sulug now said, " Let us go ashore with cam- 
pilan (sword) and klung" (shield). This was done, and the course 
of fighting was done at once. At the same time Baningan was still 
fighting within the walls. 

Just at this time Datto Sulune Cudungingan sa Colingtongan, of 
the town of Sungiline a Dinal Hayrana Amiara, arrived in his great 
warship, Galawongat Tinumcup Ukil a Keranda. This datto, whose 
sister Bantugan was in love with, came to see if he could not act as 
a peacemaker and have the quarrel cease, so that all should be 

He first spoke to Bantugan and told him to quit fighting, so that 
he could arrange matters with the king, and that anyway Bantugan 
could not win, for the Spaniards were too many for him. Bantugan 
answered, and said, " If they give back my sister, I will fight no 
more, but if not, we will fight to the death." "Well," said the 
datto, "wait till I have spoken to the king before you fight any 

So the datto went in and reached the place where Baningan was 
fighting and also prevailed upon him to wait and fight no more till 
he had spoken to the king. 

When the datto reached the palace, the king agreed to quit 
fighting if Bantugan would give Alcat to him in marriage. 

But the datto said, " If you insist on that condition, the war will 
last for many years, for Bantugan surely will not give his sister to 
you, for he has contracted to give her to Baningan." 

" Well," said the king, " Alcat can go, but her companions must 
stay, for I prefer Moros to Spaniards." Then the datto said, "No, 
this is not good, the fighting will surely continue if you insist on 
this." " Well," said the king, " let them all go, but I do not want 
to see Bantugan at all." 

So the datto carried the house and all the women and Alcat down 
to the ship of Bantugan and put them on board, and Bantugan then 

1 5 2 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

returned to his country with Baningan (the country of Bantugan 
was named Ilian a Bumbalan Tankalabulantakan), and when they 
reached there the house was replanted in its former place, and all 
were happy. 

Now the older brother (Mapalala Macog) said, " Now let Bantugan 
marry." And it was decided that Bantugan should marry Minilig 
Urugung Managam a Dalendeg, who was the daughter of the sultan 
Minialungan Simban of Minifigi a Lungung Minaga na Dalendeg. 

Pasandalan na Murud now called Dalumimbang Dalanda and 
Damagag da Lupa, and ordered them to make a journey to the 
country of the sultan and ask his daughter's hand in marriage for 

" Well," they said, " if the sultan refuses we will not return until 
we have punished them well." '•' No," said Pasandalan, "that will not 
do. I will get another messenger ; " and he called Mapalala Macog, 
who answered the same as did all the other brothers. "Well," 
said Pasandalan, "I will go myself;" but Pandi Macalayan objected 
and said, " No, let us send Bantugan's son, Balatama Lumana Alcat, 
Pandumagan Dayuran." (This boy was the son of Bantugan's sister 
whom Bantugan had married innocently, because when Bantugan 
was born he was sent away on a ship and did not return until he was 
grown up, and not knowing his sister Alcat, fell in love with her and 
married her, and this boy was born before they knew of their relation- 

When the son was found, he was brought before Pasandalan and 
said, " Why am I, a child, to be sent on this errand. Why do not 
some of my uncles go?" "Well," said Pasandalan, "I will go." 
" No," said the son, " let me go as the rest wish." But now Bantugan 
interrupted and objected to this small boy being sent on so important 
and dangerous an errand. But the brothers all insisted, and so he 
was sent away to prepare himself and to return to be instructed. 
When he came back properly dressed, his mother also came crying, 
not wanting him to go so far away. But the boy said, " I go be- 
cause my uncles cannot." 

Now Pasandalan said to him, " Have patience and speak good 
word with the sultan, and even if they speak ill to you have patience 
as long as you can, but when you cannot stand it any longer, of 
course you must fight." 

So the arms of Bantugan were given him, and when he started 
away he told them that if he did not return in three months it would 
surely be that he was dead. So he bade good-by to all and started 
on his journey. 

After he had been gone some hours Dalumimbang Dalanda dis- 
guised himself and went out to try the boy's courage, and appeared 

The Story of Ban tugan. 153 

before Balatama as an old man and asked him where he was going. 
Balatama answered and told his errand. Then Dalumimbang said, 
"You cannot go any farther ; you must return." But the boy said, 
"No, I will continue on my errand." "Well, then," said the old 
one, " if you don't go back I will kill you." At this the boy took 
his campilan and struck at the old one, who disappeared in the air. 

Then he kept on his journey, and on reaching a high stone he was 
able to look back and see the village from which he had come. The 
sight made him cry and he wanted to return, but the recollection 
of the order of his uncles made him keep on his way. 

By and by a little bird came by and perched upon his shoulder, 
and asked him where he was going, and on being told said, " Do not 
go any farther because Mimdalanu sa Tunu Midsicau di Uato is wait- 
ing for you to kill you." But the boy went on just the same, and that 
night slept on the beach in a bed made of magical snake-belt. In 
the morning his heart called to him to awake, and when he arose it 
was with such a bound that it made the beach tremble. 

So he continued on his journey, and by and by came to a stone in 
the form of a man. It was named Mamilbang a Uato and was sur- 
rounded by a fence made out of wood called Kayo Naniarugun Kayo 
Rani Dalandeg, and the land which this fence inclosed belonged to 
the wife of Satan. It lay across the road and obstructed his way, so 
he took his campilan and cut down the fence, which made the wife 
of Satan very mad, so she made the air to be as dark as night ; and 
the boy began to cry, for he could not see his way to continue the 
journey. Then the wife of Satan made it rain stones as large as 
houses, but the boy protected himself by holding his shield over him 
and prayed and called for the winds from the home land to come and 
help him, which they did, and the air became clear again and the 
rain ceased, and then Balatama saw the wife of Satan in a window 
of her house and took her to be his mother, for she resembled her so 
much. The woman called to him to come up into the house, which 
he did, and then she asked him what his errand was, and on being 
told said to him, " Do not go any farther, for the Spaniards are wait- 
ing for you to kill you." But the boy said he would go on his way 

Then the woman asked him if he had a charm of gold in the shape 
of a man. The boy answered, and said that he had one. Then he 
bade good-by to Satan's wife and started on his journey again. 

Soon on the road he met a big man-monster with horns who asked 
him where he was going. The boy told him, and then the monster 
said to him, * You cannot go any farther ; go back to your country 
where you come from." But Balatama took his campilan and made 
a stroke at the monster, who disappeared in the air. 

154 J ournal of American Folk-Lore. 

A little farther on he came across a great snake on the road, who 
also asked his errand, and on being told, the snake said, " No, you 
cannot pass, for I am the guard on the road, and none can pass 
here." So the snake made a motion to seize him, but the boy with 
his campilan cut the snake into two pieces and threw one half into 
the sea and one half into the mountains and then went on his way. 

After many days he came to a stone set in the middle of the road. 
It glowed and glistened as if it were made of pure gold, and from 
this point he could see the city to which he was going. It was a 
fine large town with ten harbors. He saw one house which seemed 
to be made of crystal and which he supposed was the house of the 
sultan. When he came nearer the city, he saw a house made of 
pure gold. 

It took him a long time to reach the harbor mouth, although from 
the golden stone it appeared to be but a short distance. 

When he entered the city gates, he was very careful not to mix 
with the crowds, for he did not know what kind of people he would 
meet. When he did meet some of the people they asked him where 
he was going, but he did not answer them, for they were only work- 
ingmen and he, a datto's son, would not converse with them. As 
he passed the streets all the people stared at him, but he was very 
beautiful and was admired by all ; as he went along he passed a 
number of datto's sons playing "sefa." They asked him to play, but 
he said he did not know how. Then one of them said, " Who are 
you and from where, that you cannot play • sefa ? ' " but the son of 
Bantugan said, " You need n't ask of me ; are you the sultan of 
this town ? " The young man who had questioned him (Batalasala- 
pay an Datto sa Ginaeuaan) said, " I am of high blood," and was 
very wroth. " Well," said the son of Bantugan, " if you want to 
fight, I guess you can do so now." 

So they fought until an old man came and made them stop. In 
the mean time some one had carried word to the sultan that there 
were two people fighting, so the sultan ordered them both brought 
before him. When they were brought, the son of Bantugan went 
up and sat down next to the sultan, which made all the other 
Moros furious, and then the courtiers begged that he might be 
killed, but the sultan said, " No, let us question him first." Ban- 
tugan's son said that before he told his errand to the sultan he 
wanted all the dattos' sons and dattos present to hear, but they 
told him it would take too long to gather them. Then Balatama 
said that before he spoke he wanted all persons to take off their hel- 
mets. But they thought this was too much and were very wroth, 
and wanted to kill him at once. The son of Bantugan then said, 
" Pshaw, what are you all to me ? you are nothing." Then the 

The Story of Bantugan. 1 5 5 

sultan said, " Tut, tut, let all take off their helmets so that we can 
hear this young man's story, for if we kill him we will know nothing 
of his errand, or from where he comes." So all the helmets were 
taken off and Balatama arose and told him his name and where he 
was from. And then all became of a good heart again and the sul- 
tan then asked Balatama to tell them his errand. 

" I am sent by Pasandalan na Murud Bandelo Madayo to ask for 
the daughter of the sultan for Datto Bantugan." The sultan then 
said to his courtiers, " You, my friends, answer the request." One 
courtier then said (Bambay sa Pananian), " I don't see how Bantu- 
gan can marry the sultan's daughter, because the first gift (sungut) 
must be a figure of a man or a woman in pure gold." "Well," said 
Bantugan's son, "I am here to hear what you want and to say 
whether it could be given or not." "Well," said another datto, 
" you must also give a great yard with the floor of gold, three feet 
thick (this datto's name was Midtumula Buisan Ninbantas Balaba- 
gan). "Well," said Bantugan's son, "all this can be given." Then 
the sister of the princess spoke up and said, " The gifts must be as 
many as the blades of grass in this city." " It can be given," said 

A datto named Daliday sa Lugungan said, " You must also give a 
bridge (talitay) built of stone, to cross the Pulangui (Rio Grande de 
Mindanao)." " It can be given," said Balatama. 

Batatalatayan now said, " You must change this city from a city 
of wooden buildings to a city of stone buildings." 

And Dalendegen Sangilan said, " You must give a ship of stone." 

Daliday su Milen demanded that all the cocoanuts in the sultan's 
grove be turned into gold and also the leaves. 

" All this would be done," said the son of Bantugan. "Mapalala 
Macog will give the yard of gold ; Malinday Assabarat the bridge of 
stone ; Dalumimbang Dalanda the boat of stone ; Matabalau Man- 
guda will give the many gifts ; Siagambalanua the golden cocoas. 
The golden statue I will give. Very well," said Balatama, "but I 
will have to go back my to father's town (Bombalan) to get it." 

At this one of the dattos scolded and said, " You are surely a liar 
and do not intend to get the statue at all. Let us cut his head off." 

And the sultan said, " Yes, let us have the golden statue now or 
we will kill you." 

" No," said Balatama ; "if I give you the statue now there will be 
dreadful storms, rain, and darkness." But they only laughed at him 
and demanded the statue. So he reached into the helmet and drew 
forth the statue of gold, and immediately there was a great storm and 
earthquakes and it rained stones as big as houses. And the sultan 
called to Balatama to put back the statue, for they would surely be all 

1 56 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

killed if he did not. "Well," said Balatama, "you would not believe 
me when I told you, and now I am going to let the storm continue." 
But the sultan begged him to put back the statue, and said that if 
he would put it back Bantugan might come and marry his daughter 
and give no other presents at all but the'golden statue. So Balatama 
put back the statue, and the air became calm again, to the great re- 
lief of the sultan and the dattos. 

" Now," said Balatama, " I will return. But first let me see the 
future wife." This was granted, and they asked him when Bantugan 
would come to the wedding. He told them in three months. So 
Balatama went to the palace and at the door was stopped by a female 
guard (Siagambal Anunan Kelam Anandinganan). She told him to 
sit down and have some bulla to chew. But he answered and said 
that he was but a child, and did not chew it. 

When the princess saw the boy she asked him what he came for. 
He told her that he had come to see her and then go back and tell 
his father of her beauty. The princess gave him a ring and a hand- 
kerchief for a present and then he bade her good-by. 

On the road home he again met the wife of Satan, who compelled 
him to stay with her for four months. 

There was a sailor of the sea from Kindalungan Minaga Delandeg 
and another from Ibat a Kadalan, a Spanish town. They met on the 
high seas, and after greeting each other the second one asked the 
first one, " Is it true that Bantugan is going to marry the daughter 
of the sultan ? " " Yes," said the first one, " great preparations are 
being made for it." Then the second one said, " Why, does he not 
know that the great General Linumimbang Sandaw Minabi Salungan 
is going to marry the same princess ? " "No," said the first, "and I 
suppose it would not make any difference if he did know." So the 
sailors separated, and the Spanish sailor went straight up to the gen- 
eral and told him that Bantugan was preparing to marry the sultan's 

The general at once ordered a great expedition to be prepared, 
and called the chief pandita (Batataswalian) and asked him if he 
thought it was a good hour for it. " No," said the chief, " if you go 
now they will surely have a big fight and you will lose." Neverthe- 
less the general embarked in his great warship, the Minanaga su 
Macag Maluba Kuman sa Tau, also with him were all of his brothers 
and following after him were ten thousand other ships. They went 
to the sultan's city, and their number was so great that they filled 
the harbor, greatly frightening the people of the city. 

And the general's brother disembarked and went to the house of 
the sultan, where he demanded the princess for his brother, saying 

The Story of Bantugan. 157 

that if she was not given the fleet would destroy the city and all the 
people. This frightened the sultan and his courtiers very much, so 
they decided to give the daughter to the general and asked him to 
fix the date for the wedding. He told him that it would be the first 
full moon. Then the general's brother left, saying that the general 
would soon come to see them. 

Bantugan prepared everything for the wedding, which he expected 
would take place at the appointed time. But the days went by and 
Bantugan and his brothers were very much afraid, for the boy had 
not returned and they feared that he was dead. So after the three 
months had passed, Bantugan prepared a big expedition to go in 
search of his son. The great warship was decorated with flags of 
gold and all the mosquito bar was made of silk. 

When they came in sight of the sultan's city one of Bantugan's 
brothers saw the Spanish fleet in the harbor, and advised Bantugan 
not to enter until the Spaniards had left. So they brought their 
ship to anchor, and all felt very sad because they could go no farther. 
Pidsayana Alungan, a son of Bantugan, came and asked his uncles 
why they were so sad, but they would not answer him, so he went 
back, and another son, Bulubulu sa Lagat, came and asked the same 
of his uncles, but they would not answer him. 

Another son now came. Lumbay sa Layagum Pegcaualau Daliday 
Malindu came and asked the same of his uncles, but none would 
answer him. Lumbay Magapindu came and asked the same ques- 
tion, but they would give him no answer. 

Now came Datto Baningan, who asked the same question of the 
brothers of Bantugan, saying, " Fear not." But they would give him 
no answer. 

Pandi Macalele came and asked of his brothers, "Why didn't 
you answer ? Why don't we go on ? Even if the grass turns into 
Spaniards we need not fear." Then Mapalala Macog came and 
asked the same, saying, "Why do you fear? even if the cannon-balls 
come like rain and lightning, we can fight always." But still no 
answer. Then Marandung Datto Sulung came and spoke to Bantu- 
gan. " Why do all our brothers not answer when questioned ? Do 
they fear the Spaniards ? Anyway, we are here only to find the son 
who has not returned, so let us return to Bombalan." "No," said 
Bantugan, " let us seek my son, and even if we enter the harbor 
where the Spaniards are, let us continue the search." So at Bantu- 
gan's command the anchors were raised and they sailed into the 
harbor where lay the Spanish fleet. 

The general and his brother were with the sultan, and were about 

158 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

to go and call to see the princess, and when they reached the palace 
the daughter called them in and was very nice to them, offering the 
bulla to the gentlemen. 

The general's brother admired one of the sisters of the princess 
very much, and asked her for bulla, but she laughed at him and would 
not give it, called him names, and made much fun with him, saying, 
he was not the general's brother, etc., etc., but only a bilan, manobo, 
or tiruray, and could not marry her, for he must marry a tiruray. 
This made the brother of the general very mad and he drew his kris 
to strike her, but his companion stopped him. Then the sister of the 
princess said to him, " Why don't you kill me ? I am not afraid of 
you ; " and then she went to the window to cool off, for shewas very 
mad at the general and his brother. And the sight of the Spanish 
fleet in the harbor increased her rage, but just then a parrot with 
golden plumage hopped into the window and told her to look out 
into the harbor mouth and there she saw Bantugan's ships entering 
the harbor, so she called her sister to see them, who came, but could 
not tell whose flags they were. Then the general's brother came 
and looked and said, " We must go and see at once whether it is the 
fleet of Bantugan, and if it is we must go and kill him and all his 

So the brother returned to the sultan and asked him if he knew 
whose ships were coming into the harbor. The sultan said, " No, 
I do not know, but will send for my father and see if he knows." So 
he sent one of his brothers to go and call the father, who, as he was 
very old, was kept in a little dark room by himself, so he could not 
get hurt. The sultan said, " If he is so bent with age that he cannot 
see, talk, or walk, tickle him in the ribs, and that will make him 
young again, and you, my brother, carry him here yourself. Do not 
trust him to the slaves, for if he should fall he would break himself 
and die." So the old man was brought, and when he looked at the 
flags on the ship he said that they were the flags of Bapa ni Bantu- 
gan (father of Bantugan), who was a great friend of his in his 
younger days ; and then he told the sultan that he and Bantugan's 
father had made a contract years ago that their children and chil- 
dren's children should intermarry, and now the sultan had promised 
his daughter to two people and that great trouble would come on 
the land. So the sultan said to the general, " Here are two claimers 
to my daughter's hand. Go aboard your ships and you and Bantu- 
gan go and fight it out, and he who wins will have my daughter." 

So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and for three days 
the earth was covered with smoke from the battle, so that neither 
could see his enemy. The Spanish general said, " I cannot see 
Bantugan or the fleet anywhere, so let us go and claim ihe princess." 

The Story of Bantugan. 159 

And when they reached the sultan they demanded his daughter, but 
the sultan said, " No, let us wait until the smoke rises to make sure 
that Bantugan is gone." 

Pamanay Macalayan called to Maladia Langig and they two went 
to Bantugan and decided to engage the Spanish fleet. They took 
down the flags of gold and put up the battle-flags, and when they 
came within range of the Spanish fleet they opened fire, and their 
cannon-balls carried away great pieces of the mountains, and many 
of the Spanish fleet were sunk and great darkness and smoke came 
over the earth. 

When the smoke arose the ships of Bantugan were seen to be all 
unharmed, so the sultan said, " Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet 
is uninjured and yours is badly damaged and you have lost." " No," 
said the general, "we will fight it out on land." So he landed all 
of his troops and cannon and made ready to meet Bantugan on the 
land, and when all were landed and ready the Spaniard sent his 
challenge against Bantugan. Bantugan landed his troops and can- 
non, but before he commenced fighting he paid his respects to the 
princess and sultan in case he should be killed. After the fight 
had begun the Spaniards saw that they could never win with guns 
and cannon, so they set upon Bantugan with campilans and spears, 
and soon the general's brother (Masuala Subangam) was killed by 
Bantugan. Before long the ground was covered with corpses and 
the rivers were dammed up with their numbers. So the sultan sent 
word for them not to fight any more, for the air and water were so 
polluted with the dead bodies. But the Spaniard answered and said, 
" If you give your daughter to Bantugan we will fight forever or 
until we are dead." The sultan sent a messenger to Bantugan say- 
ing, " Let us deceive the Spaniard in order to get him to go away. 
Let us tell him that you will not marry my daughter, and then we 
are sure he will leave, and then after he is gone, we can have the 
wedding." Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the Span- 
iards that Bantugan would not marry the sultan's daughter, and that 
the fighting should cease, because the cannon-balls were killing 
many of the women and children in the city. The Spaniard and 
Bantugan agreed that neither of them should marry the Princess 
and that they should be friends. So both the Spaniard and Bantu- 
gan sailed away to their home. But Bantugan soon returned and 
married the princess and continued on his search for his son. He 
soon found him in the house of the wife of Satan, and took him 
home with him. 

vol. xv. — no. 58. 12 

1 60 "Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

The Spanish general sailed away for about a week, for his home, 
and then turned about to return to take the princess away by force, 
for his heart was deceitful, and when he arrived at the city of the 
sultan, and found that the princess had been carried away by Ban- 
tugan, his wrath knew no bounds, so that he destroyed the sultan, 
his city, and all of its people, and then sailed away to his own city 
to prepare a great expedition with which he should utterly annihilate 
Bantugan and his country. 

When he arrived off the mouth of the Pulangui with his enormous 
fleet, their numbers were so great that the horizon could not be seen 
in any direction. 

When Bantugan saw this display of force, his heart sank within 
him, for he saw that he and his country were doomed to destruction, 
as he could not hope to gain in a fight with so formidable an antag- 
onist, and such great superiority in numbers. They called a meet- 
ing of all the dattos and none could offer any advice, so Bantugan 
arose and said, " My brothers, the Christian dogs have come to de- 
stroy the land, and we cannot successfully oppose them, yet we can 
die in defence of the fatherland." So the great warship of Bantu- 
gan was again prepared and all the soldiers of Islam embarked 
thereon, and all their dattos, and with Bantugan standing at the 
bow they sailed forth to meet their fate. As they approached the 
Spanish fleet, Bantugan shouted forth his war-song, — 

With my campilan which kills many, with my bloody campilan, shining with 
its gold ornaments, its bombol (a tassel of red hair attached to the handle of the 
campilan) made from the hair of a beautiful widow, which flashes like the ray of 
the sun at sunrise. With the beauty of its golden grip coming from the heaven 
heavenly. Its edge sharp as lightning and reaching even to the heavens. Flash- 
ing of its own accord and thirsting for the blood of the Christian dogs. I take it 
in my hands with such force that the gems in my rings burst from their settings, 
and fly away like birds. 

I take my shield painted by my sister, inlaid with flashing pearl. Its grip made 
of pure gold. Its button a great brilliant. My belt of golden snake. My amu- 
lets of pearl, the buttons on my armor taken from the stars. My turban of silver 
cloth and my helmet of gold. I go to my death, but with me shall die many of 
ye, Christian dogs. 

The fighting soon became fast and furious, but in less than a day 
it was plainly seen that the Spaniards were winning, and the great 
warship of Bantugan was filling with water until at last it sank, 
drawing with it hundreds of the Spaniard's ships, and then a strange 
thing happened. At the very point where Bantugan's warship sank 
there arose from the sea a great island covered with bongo palms. 

The wife of Bantugan, when she saw that her husband was no 
more and that his warship was destroyed, gathered together the 
remaining warriors and set forth herself to avenge him. In a few 

The Story of Bantugan. 161 

hours her ship was also sunk and in the place where it sank there 
arose the mountain of Timaco. 

This is the Moro version of the Spanish occupation of Mindanao. 
Bongos Island is situated about three miles off the mouth of the 
Rio Grande de Mindanao and is the island said by the Moros to 
have arisen where Bantugan' s ship had sunk. They say that deep 
within its mountains lives Bantugan and his warriors, and that when- 
ever a Moro's vinta or sailing boat passes by Bongos Island, Bantu- 
gan has watchers out to see whether or not there are women in the 
vinta, and if there are any that suit his fancy, they are snatched 
from their seats and carried deep into the interior of the mountain. 
For this reason the Moro women are very reluctant to go to the 
island of Bongos or even to sail by it. 

Timaco is an island marking the south side of the entrance to the 
north branch of the Rio Grande de Mindanao. It consists of one 
tall hill thickly covered with trees, and on it are found the only 
specimens of the " white monkey." These are said by the Moros 
to be the servants of Bantugan' s wife, who lives in the centre of the 
mountain. A Moro would not hurt one of them, but feeds them 
regularly. It is said that on a still day if one goes high up the 
mountain and listens carefully, he can hear the chanting and singing 
of the waiting girls of the wife of Bantugan and also hear the col- 
ingtangan (Moro musical instrument like a xylophone). 

Ralph S. Porter, U. S. V.